Atlantis, the Inca capital city, Machu Picchu, Troy… There are so many legendary lost cities which have been rediscovered worldwide. India is not far behind, especially when there is myth and mystery involved. Flood, earthquake, warfare had demolished these lost Indian cities. Rich, flourished, well architect legendary cities, few of them were rediscovered and few are still lost!
Legendary lost Cities of India :
Here is the list of top 5 legendary lost cities of India.
5. Kalibangan : World’s 1st victim of earthquake.
It is a small town located in Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan. The excavation of the city started in 1969. Kalibangan was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan is distinguished by its unique fire altars and “world’s earliest attested ploughed field”. B. B. Lal, former DG of ASI, said : “Kalibangan in Rajasthan has given the evidence of the earliest (ca. 2800 BC) ploughed agricultural field ever revealed through an excavation.”
B. B. Lal, writes,”Kalibangan in Rajasthan … has also shown that there occurred an earthquake around 2600 BC, which brought to an end the Early Indus settlement at the site.”.
This is perhaps the earliest archaeologically recorded earthquake in world history.
4. Lothal: World’s earliest dock city
Located on the the west coast of India, Lothal is one of the most important city of Indus Valley Civilization. The city was discovered in 1954 and the excavation started in 1955. The massive structures of the city have been badly damaged by floods and other decaying process; however dwarfed walls, platforms, wells, drains, baths and paved floors are still visible.
Lothal draws fame and recognition for being the site of the world’s earliest dock. It was an essential segment of the trade route between West Asia and Africa. Lothal is also known for the earliest depictions of realism in art and sculpture, and for being 2,000 years ahead of the Greeks in its citizens’ navigation savvy. Techniques and tools used for bead-making and metallurgy are still used today, 4,000 years later.
3. Muziris: The Undiscovered mystery
Muziris is another ancient lost city of India located on the banks of river Periyar in Kerala.
Muziris is reputed to be the ancient world’s greatest trading centre in the East. As the focal point of commerce for over 2500 years, this bustling seaport traded in everything from spices to precious stones with the Greeks, Romans and the rest of the world.
The exact location of Muziris is still not known to historians and archaeologists. It is generally speculated to be situated around present day Kodungallur, a town situated 18 miles north of Cochin.
A Greek papyrus of the 2nd century AD documents a contract involving an Alexandrian merchant importer and a financier that concerns cargoes, especially of pepper and spices from Muziris. The discovery opened a strong base to ancient international and trade laws in particular and has been studied at length by economists, lawyers as well as historians.
2.Vijaynagar : World’s largest ancient city
Harihara and Bukka, Sangama dynasty princes, founded Vijayanagara in 1336. This mighty city was the capital of an empire of the same name, one of the largest superpowers in Hindu history.
In around 1500 Vijaynagar had about 500,000 inhabitants (supporting 0.1% of the global population during 1440-1540), making it the second largest city in the world after Peking-Beijing and almost thrice the size of Paris.
But in 1565, the empire’s armies suffered a massive and catastrophic defeat at the hands of an alliance of the sultanates, and the capital was taken. The victorious Muslim armies then proceeded to raze, depopulate, and destroy the city and its Hindu temples.
The Vijaynagar city is located on south bank of the Tungabhadra River in Bellary District, northern Karnataka. Vijaynagar city was built around a religious center of the Virupaksha temple at Hampi. The site is listed in UNESCO’s World Heritage site as “the Ruins of Hampi.” The ruins are now in danger because of excessive vehicular pollution and construction. It is now listed as a “threatened” World Heritage Site.
1. Dwaraka : The kingdom of Krishna
It is believed that due to damage and demolition by the sea, Dwaraka has submerged six times and modern day Dwaraka in Gujarat is therefore the seventh such city to be built in the area
The legend of Krishna has been proved partially by scientific marine archaeological investigations conducted by the Marine Archaeology Unit and the Government of Gujarat. In the sea they found the ruins of the city which include huge pillars, gigantic stone walls, and other antiques. The final presumption of these marine under water investigations is that “there was really a city which got sunken in Dwaraka in 1500 BC and that the “architectural evidence and antiquities such as a seal and inscriptions go to indicate that it was the city of Mahabharata age”.